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Immunotherapy is one of the fastest-growing areas of new drug development.  There are two main categories – Active Immunotherapy and Passive Immunotherapy. 

Active immunotherapies (a.k.a. therapeutic vaccines) involve internally stimulating the body’s own immune system to generate a targeted, durable treatment against a specific disease or condition.  Passive immunotherapies also employ the immune system but rely on antigen-specific antibodies engineered outside of the body which are repeatedly administered for treatment effect.

KLH in Active Immunotherapy

KLH can be used as a carrier molecule or immune stimulant in certain active immunotherapies being developed for a wide range of conditions including cancers, inflammatory disease, immune disorders, and Alzheimer’s.

KLH in TDAR Immunotoxicology

KLH is well known as a safe, potent stimulator of humoral and cellular immune responses. It plays a vital role in research and clinical studies as an antigen for assessing immune function and in immunotoxicology studies such as monitoring the immunosuppressive effects of drug candidates.


  1. Lauwerys, Hachulla, Spertini, Lazaro, Jorgensen, Mariette, Haelterman. Down-regulation of interferon signature in systemic lupus erythematosus patients by active immunization with interferon-a-kinoid. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 Feb;65(2):477-56. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/down-regulation-of-interferon-signature-in-systemic-lupus-er.html
  2. Lebrec, Hock, Sundsmo, Mytych, Chow, Carlock, Joubert, Reindel, Zhou, Bussiere. T-cell-dependent antibody responses in the rat: Forms and sources of keyhole limpet hemocyanin matter. J Immunotox 2013; August 20 Epub. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/t-cell-dependent-antibody-responses-in-the-rat-forms-and-sou-1.html
  3. Miller, Curtsinger, Merthoid, Malvey, Bliss, Le, Fautsch, Dudek, Blazar, Panoskaltsis-Mortari. Diminished neo-antigen response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) vaccines in patients after treatment with chemotherapy or hematopoietic cell transplantation. Clin Immun 2005; 117:144-151. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/diminished-neo-antigen-response-to-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin.html
  4. Musselli, Livingston, Raqupathi. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines against cancer: the Memorial Sloan Kettering experience. J Cancer Res Clin Oncology 2001 Oct; 127 Suppl 2:R20-6. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin-conjugate-vaccines-against-cancer.html
  5. Shuguang, Milbrandt, Brisson. Measuring properties of different forms of Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) reveals important differences. Immunology 2015; poster presented May 8-12, 2015. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/measuring-properties-of-different-forms-of-keyhole-limpet-he.html
  6. U.S. Clinical Trials database www.clinicaltrials.gov
  7. Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Knowledge Base. www.klhsite.org

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