Immunotherapy is one of the fastest-growing areas of new drug development. There are two main categories – Active Immunotherapy and Passive Immunotherapy.
Active immunotherapies (a.k.a. therapeutic vaccines) involve internally stimulating the body’s own immune system to generate a targeted, durable treatment against a specific disease or condition. Passive immunotherapies also employ the immune system but rely on antigen-specific antibodies engineered outside of the body which are repeatedly administered for treatment effect.
KLH in Active Immunotherapy
KLH can be used as a carrier molecule or immune stimulant in certain active immunotherapies being developed for a wide range of conditions including cancers, inflammatory disease, immune disorders, and Alzheimer’s.
KLH in TDAR Immunotoxicology
KLH is well known as a safe, potent stimulator of humoral and cellular immune responses. It plays a vital role in research and clinical studies as an antigen for assessing immune function and in immunotoxicology studies such as monitoring the immunosuppressive effects of drug candidates.
- Lauwerys, Hachulla, Spertini, Lazaro, Jorgensen, Mariette, Haelterman. Down-regulation of interferon signature in systemic lupus erythematosus patients by active immunization with interferon-a-kinoid. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 Feb;65(2):477-56. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/down-regulation-of-interferon-signature-in-systemic-lupus-er.html
- Lebrec, Hock, Sundsmo, Mytych, Chow, Carlock, Joubert, Reindel, Zhou, Bussiere. T-cell-dependent antibody responses in the rat: Forms and sources of keyhole limpet hemocyanin matter. J Immunotox 2013; August 20 Epub. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/t-cell-dependent-antibody-responses-in-the-rat-forms-and-sou-1.html
- Miller, Curtsinger, Merthoid, Malvey, Bliss, Le, Fautsch, Dudek, Blazar, Panoskaltsis-Mortari. Diminished neo-antigen response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) vaccines in patients after treatment with chemotherapy or hematopoietic cell transplantation. Clin Immun 2005; 117:144-151. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/diminished-neo-antigen-response-to-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin.html
- Musselli, Livingston, Raqupathi. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines against cancer: the Memorial Sloan Kettering experience. J Cancer Res Clin Oncology 2001 Oct; 127 Suppl 2:R20-6. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin-conjugate-vaccines-against-cancer.html
- Shuguang, Milbrandt, Brisson. Measuring properties of different forms of Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) reveals important differences. Immunology 2015; poster presented May 8-12, 2015. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/measuring-properties-of-different-forms-of-keyhole-limpet-he.html
- U.S. Clinical Trials database www.clinicaltrials.gov
- Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Knowledge Base. www.klhsite.org