About Stellar KLH™ Products

KLH (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin) is used extensively as a carrier protein in research and therapeutic vaccine applications. Peptides, small proteins and drug molecules of low molecular weight are not usually immunogenic. They require the aid of a carrier protein to stimulate antibody production. KLH is a very effective and popular carrier protein due to its large size, numerous epitopes, plentiful sites for antigen conjugation, and strong safety history.

KLH is also well known as a safe, potent stimulator of humoral and cellular immune responses.

It plays a vital role in research and clinical studies as an antigen for assessing immune function and in immunotoxicology studies such as monitoring the immunosuppressive effects of drug candidates.

Different forms and supply sources of KLH have been associated with differing magnitudes and variability in IgM and IgG responses.1,2,3 Stellar KLH™ has been shown to produce more robust primary and secondary anti-KLH responses compared to other sources of KLH.3,4 Consistent, reliable responses are critical for proper immunotoxicology testing.

To satisfy the exacting requirements of our vaccine customers, Stellar offers KLH manufactured according to current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). We also offer research grade (non-GMP) product in for use in research and preclinical settings.

Advantages of Stellar KLH™

The quality of KLH can effect conjugation and immune response. Only Stellar KLH™ protein is produced from controlled, land-based aquaculture colonies of Megathura crenulata using Stellar Biotechnologies’ industry-leading manufacturing processes and quality systems. We provide quality, consistent KLH with optimum immunogenicity for both your clinical and research needs.

  • Consistent, high quality, immunogenic KLH
  • Low levels of endotoxin and other impurities
  • Available in both single dose vials and bulk packaging
  • Fully traceable and controlled back to native source
  • Long-term, scalable supply for commercial use
  • Always in liquid form (never lyophilized which can diminish performance)
  • Produced using environmentally sound, sustainable methods

Over the years, we have pioneered numerous milestones in KLH manufacturing, quality and sustainability. Other KLH suppliers continue to rely on the small and sensitive, wild populations of the Giant Keyhole Limpet and cannot offer KLH that meets Stellar Biotechnologies’ standards.

KLH Structure

Stellar Subunit KLH (suKLH) consists of dissociated KLH subunits of approximately 400-600 kDa. Stellar High Molecular Weight (HMW) KLH consists of KLH in its native form, a didecamer of 4-8 MDa.

  1. Herscowitz, Harold, and Stavitsky. Immunochemical and immunogenic properties of a purified keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Immunol. 1972; 22: 51-61. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1408198/
  2. Miller, Curtsinger, Berthold, Malvey, Bliss, Le, Fautsch, Dudek, Blazar and Panoskaltsis-Mortari. Diminished neo-antigen response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) vaccines in patients after treatment with chemotherapy or hematopoietic cell transplantation. Clin. Immunol. 2005;117: 144-151. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/diminished-neo-antigen-response-to-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin.html
  3. Lebrec, Hock, Sundsmo, Mytych, Chow, Carlock, Joubert. T-cell Dependent Antibody Responses in the rat: Forms and sources of keyhole limpet hemocyanin matter. Poster presentation, Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) 2013. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/t-cell-dependent-antibody-responses-in-the-rat-forms-and-sou.html
  4. Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Knowledge Base. www.klhsite.org

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